What is meant
by prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men.
Prostate cancer begins in the prostate gland, is one
of the parts of the male reproductive system. It is
the size of a large walnut plus is located just underneath
the bladder at the base of the penis. The prostate
surrounds the urethra – the tube that takes
urine from the bladder out via the penis. The major
function of the prostate gland is to generate the
seminal fluid. It may cause pain, difficulty in urinating
Prostate cancers begin in the glandular tissue of
the prostate and are known as adenocarcinomas. Prostate
cancer is most often slow-growing also can be managed
successfully. . It can find out by physical examination
or by screening blood tests, such as the PSA (prostate
specific antigen) test. Prostate cancer is the more
common cancer in Canadian men’s. Prostate cancer
can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, hormone
therapy, and chemotherapy.
What are causes
of prostate cancer?
There is no one single cause of prostate cancer,
but a few factors appears to increase the risk of
• Family history.
Having a brother or father who has prostate cancer
increases the chance of getting prostate cancer.
• Genetic mutations.
Gene mutations that makes the person into prostate
As per a study conducted by American Cancer Society
(ACS), more than 65 percent of all prostate cancers
are found in men age 65 and older.
The chance of getting prostate cancer is high for African
Americans than white and Hispanic Americans. Asian Americans
have below-average risk.
High fat meat and diary increases the chance of getting
prostate cancer. Exercise. Although not conclusive,
recent studies have indicated that men over the age
of 65 who exercised regularly had a lower risk of prostate
Higher levels of male hormones (androgens) may raise
the risk of getting prostate cancer.
Some men develop prostate cancer exclusive of any of
these risk factors.
and screening for prostate cancer
All men over the age of 50 years are supposed to discuss
with their doctor the potential benefits plus risks
of early detection of prostate cancer by Prostate Specific
Antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examinations (DRE)
therefore that they can make informed decisions regarding
the use of these tests.
Men’s will have more risk because of family history
or those of African ancestry should discuss the necessity
for testing at an earlier age.
A digital rectal examination (DRE) is the most usual
method to screen for prostate cancer. At the time of
your annual physical check-up, your doctor wears a gloved
finger into the rectum to feel the prostate gland. Mostly
prostate cancers grow in the peripheral zone, which
is the part of the prostate that lies very near to the
rectum. This helps to feel easy for lumps, irregularities
or else changes in size or consistency.
A normal prostate feels smooth and rubbery. Abnormalities
diagnosed by DRE might suggest a necessity for more
Antigen (PSA) test for prostate cancer
The Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test is a blood
test to assist detects prostate cancer. It measures
a substance known as prostate specific antigen prepared
by the prostate. It is normal to locate small quantities
of PSA in the blood but problems through your prostate
can cause your PSA level to mount.
PSA levels differ according to age plus tend to mount
gradually in men over 60. Elevated levels of PSA can
be caused by numerous prostate problems as well as not
necessarily cancer. At times men with prostate cancer
still have normal PSA levels. If you have an enlarged
prostate, your PSA level might also be high.
During a digital rectal exam (DRE), your doctor might
have felt something not usual with your prostate plus
ordered a PSA test. Or else the blood test might be
part of your a check-up and your doctor has recommended
more tests since your PSA level is high. A PSA test
is better at finding abnormalities in the prostate than
DRE but it isn’t an ideal test for diagnose prostate
If your DRE or else PSA tests suggest abnormalities
in your prostate, your doctor might suggest more tests
to rule out or else confirm a diagnosis of cancer.
As with any medical test, ask your doctor about the
benefits as well as risks of the PSA test for you.
Signs and symptoms
of prostate cancer
Having the following signs plus symptoms does not essentially
mean you have prostate cancer. They could be caused
via other prostate problems, so see your doctor to be
Prostate cancer is normally slow growing and might
not cause any symptoms for years. Its signs plus symptoms
are usually divided into 2 groups:
Localized (relating the prostate gland)
decrease in the size plus force of your urinary stream
(interrupted flow ,weak)
difficulty starting (hesitancy) or else stopping urine
urgent require to urinate
frequent urination during the day and in particular
at night (nocturia)
lack of ability to urinate
You may found blood in your urine (hematuria)
Will have pain during ejaculation
Generalized (relating areas where the cancer has spread)
bone pain is the most frequent symptom of cancer that
aching pain in the lower back, hips, thighs or groin
Will have weight loss
Will have a constant tiredness
urinary obstruction as well as/or retention
low red blood cell count (anemia)