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Prostate Cancer

What is meant by prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Prostate cancer begins in the prostate gland, is one of the parts of the male reproductive system. It is the size of a large walnut plus is located just underneath the bladder at the base of the penis. The prostate surrounds the urethra – the tube that takes urine from the bladder out via the penis. The major function of the prostate gland is to generate the seminal fluid. It may cause pain, difficulty in urinating etc.

Prostate cancers begin in the glandular tissue of the prostate and are known as adenocarcinomas. Prostate cancer is most often slow-growing also can be managed successfully. . It can find out by physical examination or by screening blood tests, such as the PSA (prostate specific antigen) test. Prostate cancer is the more common cancer in Canadian men’s. Prostate cancer can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy.

What are causes of prostate cancer?

There is no one single cause of prostate cancer, but a few factors appears to increase the risk of developing it:

• Family history. Having a brother or father who has prostate cancer increases the chance of getting prostate cancer.

• Genetic mutations. Gene mutations that makes the person into prostate cancer.

• Age. As per a study conducted by American Cancer Society (ACS), more than 65 percent of all prostate cancers are found in men age 65 and older.

• Race. The chance of getting prostate cancer is high for African Americans than white and Hispanic Americans. Asian Americans have below-average risk.

• Diet. High fat meat and diary increases the chance of getting prostate cancer. Exercise. Although not conclusive, recent studies have indicated that men over the age of 65 who exercised regularly had a lower risk of prostate cancer.

• Hormones. Higher levels of male hormones (androgens) may raise the risk of getting prostate cancer.
Some men develop prostate cancer exclusive of any of these risk factors.

Early diagnose and screening for prostate cancer

All men over the age of 50 years are supposed to discuss with their doctor the potential benefits plus risks of early detection of prostate cancer by Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examinations (DRE) therefore that they can make informed decisions regarding the use of these tests.

Men’s will have more risk because of family history or those of African ancestry should discuss the necessity for testing at an earlier age.

Digital rectal examination (DRE)

A digital rectal examination (DRE) is the most usual method to screen for prostate cancer. At the time of your annual physical check-up, your doctor wears a gloved finger into the rectum to feel the prostate gland. Mostly prostate cancers grow in the peripheral zone, which is the part of the prostate that lies very near to the rectum. This helps to feel easy for lumps, irregularities or else changes in size or consistency.

A normal prostate feels smooth and rubbery. Abnormalities diagnosed by DRE might suggest a necessity for more tests.

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test for prostate cancer

The Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test is a blood test to assist detects prostate cancer. It measures a substance known as prostate specific antigen prepared by the prostate. It is normal to locate small quantities of PSA in the blood but problems through your prostate can cause your PSA level to mount.

PSA levels differ according to age plus tend to mount gradually in men over 60. Elevated levels of PSA can be caused by numerous prostate problems as well as not necessarily cancer. At times men with prostate cancer still have normal PSA levels. If you have an enlarged prostate, your PSA level might also be high.

During a digital rectal exam (DRE), your doctor might have felt something not usual with your prostate plus ordered a PSA test. Or else the blood test might be part of your a check-up and your doctor has recommended more tests since your PSA level is high. A PSA test is better at finding abnormalities in the prostate than DRE but it isn’t an ideal test for diagnose prostate cancer.

If your DRE or else PSA tests suggest abnormalities in your prostate, your doctor might suggest more tests to rule out or else confirm a diagnosis of cancer.

As with any medical test, ask your doctor about the benefits as well as risks of the PSA test for you.

Signs and symptoms of prostate cancer

Having the following signs plus symptoms does not essentially mean you have prostate cancer. They could be caused via other prostate problems, so see your doctor to be sure.

Prostate cancer is normally slow growing and might not cause any symptoms for years. Its signs plus symptoms are usually divided into 2 groups:

Localized (relating the prostate gland)
decrease in the size plus force of your urinary stream (interrupted flow ,weak)
difficulty starting (hesitancy) or else stopping urine flow (dribbling)
urgent require to urinate
frequent urination during the day and in particular at night (nocturia)
lack of ability to urinate
You may found blood in your urine (hematuria)
Will have pain during ejaculation

Generalized (relating areas where the cancer has spread)

bone pain is the most frequent symptom of cancer that has spread
aching pain in the lower back, hips, thighs or groin
Will have weight loss
Will have a constant tiredness
urinary obstruction as well as/or retention
low red blood cell count (anemia)





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