The Symptoms of leprosy

Symptoms of leprosy
When a person is infected with the bacteria that cause leprosy, the bacteria begins to multiply within the body. After three to five years, symptoms of leprosy will usually begin. This stage between becoming infected and the start of symptoms is called the “leprosy incubation period.” Although the incubation period is typically between three and five years, it can vary from six months to several decades.

Leprosy generally affects the skin and peripheral nerves. However, once a person starts experiencing symptoms, they can differ in type and intensity. Symptoms of leprosy will also be different based on the form of leprosy that a person has.

Symptoms of Tuberculoid Leprosy:
Tuberculoid leprosy is the calm form of the disease. In the early hours symptoms can include one or more light or slightly red patches of skin that appear on the chest or extremities. This may be associated with a decrease in light-touch feeling in the area of the rash.

Other symptoms include:
•Severe pain
•Muscle weakness, especially in the hands and feet
•Skin stiffness and dryness
•Loss of fingers and toes
•Eye problems, which lead to blindness
•Enlarged nerves, especially those around the elbow and knee

It is important to note that not all people with leprosy be defeated their fingers and toes. With early diagnosis and leprosy treatment, a lot of these symptoms can be prevented.

Many people with Tuberculoid disease can even self-cure without benefit of treatment. In order to prevent problems with fingers or toes, people should avoid wound and infections to these areas and take their leprosy medicines as prescribed.

Symptoms of Lepromatous Leprosy:
Lepromatous leprosy is the cruel form of the disease. Lepromatous leprosy symptoms can include a regular skin rash more commonly found on the
•Face
•Ears
•Wrists
•Elbows
•Knees
•Buttocks.

This skin rash can be:
•Small or large
•Flat or rose
•Light or dark.

Other symptoms include:
•Thinning of eyebrows and eyelashes
•Thickened skin on face
•Nasal dankness
•Bloody nose
•Laryngitis
•Collapsing of the nose
•Swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin and armpits
•Scarring of the testes that leads to infertility
•Enlargement of male breasts (gynecomastia).

Types of Brain Tumors

Definition of Brain Tumors
Primary brain tumors are cancers that arise in the brain rather than spreading to the brain from other parts of the body.

Description of Brain Tumors
Primary brain tumors make up about 1 percent of all cancers in the United States (13,000 cases a year) and cause roughly 2.5 percent of all cancer deaths.

These are the most common solid tumors in children. In adults, there is a steady rise in incidence with age, the peak occurring between the ages of 50 and 55.

The brain also is a frequent site of metastasis for other tumors, most commonly cancers of the breast, lung and kidney and malignant melanoma. A previous diagnosis of a cancer elsewhere would make the physician suspect a metastasis rather than a primary brain tumor.

Types of Brain Tumors:
Brain tumors arise from various types of cells in the brain, with tumors of supporting tissues being more common than nerve cell tumors. These tumors tend to be named after the kind of cell they arise in.

A tumor of the atrocity, a neuron-support cell, is referred to as an astrocytoma. A tumor of the cells lining the open areas inside the spinal cord and brain is an ependymoma.

A tumor of the neurons can be a ganglioneuroma, neuroblastoma or retinoblastoma.
There are more rare tumors of specialized cells within the brain, such as germinoma, pinealoma and choroid plexus carcinoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Brain Tumors
Most primary brain tumors have no discernable cause.

Symptoms of Brain Tumors
There are two broad categories of symptoms. The first results from the increase in pressure in the brain as the tumor expands. The skull is hard and cannot yield, resulting in symptoms such as:

• Headache, which is often generalized. It is persistent and worsens with activity, such as straining. It is often worse at night or in the early morning.

• Vomiting, this may or may not be associated with nausea. It is more common in children than adults.

• Seizures, in an adult without a history of seizures, strongly suggest a brain tumor.
Appropriate examinations, including CT or MRI scans, should be done promptly.

• Change in mental ability or personality that may be obvious to the family and not to the patient, or vice versa.

• Lethargy

The other category of symptoms has to do with the tumor’s location and the pressure effects it produces on nearby structures. There are many types of local symptoms, including:

•weakness of various parts of the body, especially an arm or a leg

•difficulties in coordination or balance

•impairment of memory

•various vision defects

•speech problems

•changes in sensation

Epilepsy Attacks in the Brain can be Cured

An American study has shed new light on the mechanism behind epilepsy attacks in the brain. Epilepsy attacks, which can manifest as fits in some people, or “absences” in others, are caused by too much electrical signaling from the brain’s neurons.

In epilepsy, excessive signaling between neurons, a major type of brain cell that communicates electrical signals across gaps called synapses, can lead to epileptic seizures. However, another class of brain cells called glia can regulate those signals. Among the glia are star-shaped cells called astrocytes-the particular focus of the research.

The astrocytes is known to have a wide range of functions, including supplying nutrients to other brain cells, and even helping the brain cope with damaged nerve cells and it is key to brain dysfunction and opens the potential for novel therapeutic strategies in epilepsy. The researchers focused on an abnormal condition called reactive astrocytosis, known to occur in many neurological diseases. The astrocytes swell to a large size and change expression levels of a number of proteins. The impact of reactive astrocytosis on brain function is difficult to investigate because it usually occurs in the context of brain inflammation and abnormal changes in surrounding cells.

In epilepsy, inhibition is not working properly, and uncontrolled signaling leads to epileptic seizures. Because both disrupted inhibition and reactive astrocytosis are known to occur in other neurologic conditions, including many psychiatric disorders, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, our findings may have wide implications.

The researchers solved this problem by using a virus to selectively cause reactive astrocytosis without triggering broader inflammation and brain injury, in a mouse model. They were able to focus on how the altered astrocytes affected specific synapses in neurons in the brain’s hippocampus.

Grapes Reduces the Risk of Heart Disease and Type 2 Diabetes

New study findings were presented at the Experimental Biology convention in Anaheim, California, showing the effect of grapes in the diet reducing the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Study of the Benefits of Grapes
Researchers at the University of Michigan Health System found in the animal study they conducted that adding grapes to a regular high-fat American style diet helped to prevent risk factors for metabolic syndrome which can be a precursor to developing type 2 diabetes. If a person has two or more of, can raise the risk of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. These conditions include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high insulin levels and increased fat around the waist. The University of Michigan Health System’s study found that grapes may decrease the risk of developing these conditions.

The study consisted of adding grape powder (derived from red, green and black grapes) to food given to one group of research rats while the other group of rats ate the same diet minus the grape powder. After three months, the group that ate the grape powder had lower blood pressure, lower triglyceride levels, reduced indicators of inflammation in the heart and blood and overall better heart function than the group that had no grape powder. The researches feel that the study shows that a grape-enriched diet can have positive effects in lowering the risk factors that can lead to heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Why Grapes are Effective in Lowering Risk of Heart Disease
Grapes contain phytochemicals, a naturally occurring antioxidant, which is believed to be the main reason that grapes have health benefits. Phytochemicals help to protect heart cells from the damaging effects of metabolic syndrome. The rats that ate the grape powder showed low levels of inflammation, oxidative damage and other indicators of cardiac stress. The University of Michigan Health System plans on conducting further research this summer on the effects of grapes and other fruits containing high levels of antioxidant phytochemicals in lowering the risk of heart disease.