General painkillers tied to lower skin cancer risk

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) – In a new study from Denmark, people who had taken aspirin, ibuprofen and related painkillers — particularly at high doses and for years at a time — were less likely to get skin cancer, compared to those who seldom used those medications.The conclusion add to growing evidence that long-term use of the medications, known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, may help protect people against skin cancers, including melanoma, the deadliest type.

Still, research has not been unanimous in that finding: one great 2008 report found no link between NSAIDs and melanoma. The drugs have also been linked to an increased risk of kidney cancer and come with known bleeding risks — so more research is needed to weigh the feasible harms and benefits of the drugs outside of pain relief, researchers said. But the lead author on the new study said it would make sense if NSAIDs were tied to skin cancer hazard.

“NSAIDs work by inhibiting specific enzymes involved in irritation,” Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir, from Aarhus University Hospital, told Reuters Health in an email. “Previous studies show that elevated levels of these enzymes are found in skin cancer and that they are involved in important steps of cancer enlargement such as inhibition of cell death, suppression of the immune system, and stimulation of invasiveness and blood vessel growth,” she explained. For the new study, Johannesdottir and her colleagues looked back at records from more than 18,000 people in northern Denmark with skin cancer, both melanoma and less-risky forms of the disease, between 1991 and 2009. They matched each of those cancer cases with another ten people of the same age and gender without cancer and compared their treatment drug records for the years before the cancer patients were diagnosed. Thirty-eight percent of people without cancer had filled more than two prescriptions for an NSAID, according to their health records.

Preclusion of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

As per guidelines issued by American Academy of Pediatrics’ (AAP), the following actions can help in preventing sudden infant death syndrome.

1. Be it night sleep or a nap, do not leave child to sleep on its stomach. Furthermore, side sleeping is also an unstable sleeping position that must be avoided.

2. Making them sleep in plagiarize reduced the risk of SIDS to a significant level.

3. Soft bedding material should be avoided, with babies being placed on a firm, tight-fitting crib mattress. One can use light sheet to cover up the infant, even though using pillows, comforters, or quilts will add to the vows.

4. Maintain a moderate room temperature. Make sure that the infant is not hot to lay a hand on.

5. Pacifiers at naptime and bedtime reduces SIDS risk as it allows opening of airway and prevents prevent baby from a yawning sleep.

6. Smoke-free environment is another preventative assess.

7. Breastfeeding the infant is advised, which reduces level of respiratory infections and also the curb of SIDS.

8. Honey should not be fed to newborn less than 12 months, as it causes botulism.

Tips for choosing the right sporty shoes

Wearing the proper sporty shoes for your sport or exercise can help protect you against discomfort and injury.

The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons says you should pay attention to these features when shopping for sporty shoes:

  • Shoes for aerobic workout need sufficient shock absorption, cushioning, a flexible sole and enough stability.
  • Shoes for courtyard sports need a good sole that is specific to your sport.
  • Shoes for field sports need cleats, spikes or studs, and a cushioned insert.
  • Winter-sport shoes should have a cozy fit and plenty of ankle support.
  • Track and field shoes depend on the sport, so it’s important to ask your trainer about proper shoes.
  • Specialty-sport shoes should fit according to the sport — for instance, cycling shoes should fit tightly.
  • Outdoor-sport shoes need warmth, good step and plenty of support.

Are you troubled by a Toothache?

A toothache can be a real pain, but you can take steps to care for tooth discomfort.

The American Dental Association offers these suggestions:

  • Rinse your mouth with warm water.
  • Very gently clean between teeth with floss.
  • Don’t apply any pain reliever to the gum surrounding the painful tooth, as this can damage nearby gum tissue.
  • Call your dentist if the pain doesn’t get better.

Throat Cancer And Its Symptoms

Throat Cancer also called Hypo pharyngeal cancer, Laryngeal cancer, Laryngopharyngeal cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, Oropharyngeal cancer, Pharyngeal cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. Depending on what part of the throat is affected, Throat cancer has different names. The different parts of the throat are called the oropharynx, the hypopharynx, and the nasopharynx. Sometimes it includes the larynx or voice box.

The main risk factors which cause throat cancer are smoking or using smokeless tobacco and use of alcohol.

Symptoms of throat cancer may include

  •  Trouble while breathing or speaking
  •  Frequent headaches
  •  Pain or ringing in the ears
  •  Trouble when swallowing

Treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Ten Cancer Symptoms for Women

Women especially need to be aware of any signs and symptoms their bodies may be exhibiting. Many types of gynecologic cancer produce symptoms early enough for them to be successfully treated. When the symptoms are ignored, the delay in treatment can prove to be fatal. Ladies, listen to your bodies! If you are experiencing something abnormal for you, see your doctor. Chances are the symptoms are not cancer related, but it’s better to be safe.

1. Pelvic Pain:
Pelvic pain is characterized by pain or pressure below the navel. It is persistent and isn’t limited to just premenstrual syndrome. Pelvic pain is associated with endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, fallopian tube cancer and vaginal cancer.

2. Abdominal Swelling and Bloating:
Abdominal swelling and bloating is one of the more common symptoms of ovarian cancer. It is also a symptom that is most ignored. The bloating may be so bad that one cannot button their pants, or even have to go up a size.

3. Persistent Lower Back Pain:
Lower back pain occurs in the lower back and often feels like a dull ache. Some women describe it as feeling like labor pains. Lower back pain is a symptom of ovarian cancer.

4. Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding:
Abnormal vaginal bleeding is the most common symptom experienced by women when they have a gynecologic cancer. Heavy periods, bleeding between periods, and bleeding during and after sex are all considered abnormal vaginal bleeding and are symptoms of gynecologic cancer. The symptom of abnormal vaginal bleeding is linked to: cervical cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer.

5. Persistent Fever:
A fever that does not go away or lasts for more than 7 days on and off should be reported to your doctor. A stubborn fever is often a symptom of cancer. Keep in mind that a fever is also a symptom of many other benign conditions.

6. Persistent Stomach Upset or Bowel Changes:
If you experience constipation, diarrhea, blood in the stools, gas, thinner stools, or just a general overall change in bowel habits, see your doctor. These changes are all symptoms of gynecologic cancer and colon cancer.

7. Unintentional Weight Loss:
Losing 10 or more pounds without trying may be a nice surprise, but isn’t quite normal. Although a woman’s weight may fluctuate throughout the month, anything 10 pounds or more should be reported to your doctor.

8. Vulva or Vaginal Abnormalities:
With vulvae or vaginal abnormalities, you should be aware of any sores, blister, changes in skin color, and discharge. Women should examine their vulva and vagina regularly to look for these abnormalities.

9. Changes in the Breast:
During the monthly breast self exam, women should look for lumps. Soreness, nipple discharge, dimpling, redness, or swelling.Report any changes to your doctor as soon as possible.

10. Fatigue:
Fatigue is one of the most commonly experienced cancer symptoms. It is usually more common when the cancer has advanced, but still occurs in the early stages. Any type of fatigue that prevents you from doing normal daily activities need to be evaluated by a doctor.

The Symptoms of leprosy

Symptoms of leprosy
When a person is infected with the bacteria that cause leprosy, the bacteria begins to multiply within the body. After three to five years, symptoms of leprosy will usually begin. This stage between becoming infected and the start of symptoms is called the “leprosy incubation period.” Although the incubation period is typically between three and five years, it can vary from six months to several decades.

Leprosy generally affects the skin and peripheral nerves. However, once a person starts experiencing symptoms, they can differ in type and intensity. Symptoms of leprosy will also be different based on the form of leprosy that a person has.

Symptoms of Tuberculoid Leprosy:
Tuberculoid leprosy is the calm form of the disease. In the early hours symptoms can include one or more light or slightly red patches of skin that appear on the chest or extremities. This may be associated with a decrease in light-touch feeling in the area of the rash.

Other symptoms include:
•Severe pain
•Muscle weakness, especially in the hands and feet
•Skin stiffness and dryness
•Loss of fingers and toes
•Eye problems, which lead to blindness
•Enlarged nerves, especially those around the elbow and knee

It is important to note that not all people with leprosy be defeated their fingers and toes. With early diagnosis and leprosy treatment, a lot of these symptoms can be prevented.

Many people with Tuberculoid disease can even self-cure without benefit of treatment. In order to prevent problems with fingers or toes, people should avoid wound and infections to these areas and take their leprosy medicines as prescribed.

Symptoms of Lepromatous Leprosy:
Lepromatous leprosy is the cruel form of the disease. Lepromatous leprosy symptoms can include a regular skin rash more commonly found on the

This skin rash can be:
•Small or large
•Flat or rose
•Light or dark.

Other symptoms include:
•Thinning of eyebrows and eyelashes
•Thickened skin on face
•Nasal dankness
•Bloody nose
•Collapsing of the nose
•Swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin and armpits
•Scarring of the testes that leads to infertility
•Enlargement of male breasts (gynecomastia).

Types of Brain Tumors

Definition of Brain Tumors
Primary brain tumors are cancers that arise in the brain rather than spreading to the brain from other parts of the body.

Description of Brain Tumors
Primary brain tumors make up about 1 percent of all cancers in the United States (13,000 cases a year) and cause roughly 2.5 percent of all cancer deaths.

These are the most common solid tumors in children. In adults, there is a steady rise in incidence with age, the peak occurring between the ages of 50 and 55.

The brain also is a frequent site of metastasis for other tumors, most commonly cancers of the breast, lung and kidney and malignant melanoma. A previous diagnosis of a cancer elsewhere would make the physician suspect a metastasis rather than a primary brain tumor.

Types of Brain Tumors:
Brain tumors arise from various types of cells in the brain, with tumors of supporting tissues being more common than nerve cell tumors. These tumors tend to be named after the kind of cell they arise in.

A tumor of the atrocity, a neuron-support cell, is referred to as an astrocytoma. A tumor of the cells lining the open areas inside the spinal cord and brain is an ependymoma.

A tumor of the neurons can be a ganglioneuroma, neuroblastoma or retinoblastoma.
There are more rare tumors of specialized cells within the brain, such as germinoma, pinealoma and choroid plexus carcinoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Brain Tumors
Most primary brain tumors have no discernable cause.

Symptoms of Brain Tumors
There are two broad categories of symptoms. The first results from the increase in pressure in the brain as the tumor expands. The skull is hard and cannot yield, resulting in symptoms such as:

• Headache, which is often generalized. It is persistent and worsens with activity, such as straining. It is often worse at night or in the early morning.

• Vomiting, this may or may not be associated with nausea. It is more common in children than adults.

• Seizures, in an adult without a history of seizures, strongly suggest a brain tumor.
Appropriate examinations, including CT or MRI scans, should be done promptly.

• Change in mental ability or personality that may be obvious to the family and not to the patient, or vice versa.

• Lethargy

The other category of symptoms has to do with the tumor’s location and the pressure effects it produces on nearby structures. There are many types of local symptoms, including:

•weakness of various parts of the body, especially an arm or a leg

•difficulties in coordination or balance

•impairment of memory

•various vision defects

•speech problems

•changes in sensation

Epilepsy Attacks in the Brain can be Cured

An American study has shed new light on the mechanism behind epilepsy attacks in the brain. Epilepsy attacks, which can manifest as fits in some people, or “absences” in others, are caused by too much electrical signaling from the brain’s neurons.

In epilepsy, excessive signaling between neurons, a major type of brain cell that communicates electrical signals across gaps called synapses, can lead to epileptic seizures. However, another class of brain cells called glia can regulate those signals. Among the glia are star-shaped cells called astrocytes-the particular focus of the research.

The astrocytes is known to have a wide range of functions, including supplying nutrients to other brain cells, and even helping the brain cope with damaged nerve cells and it is key to brain dysfunction and opens the potential for novel therapeutic strategies in epilepsy. The researchers focused on an abnormal condition called reactive astrocytosis, known to occur in many neurological diseases. The astrocytes swell to a large size and change expression levels of a number of proteins. The impact of reactive astrocytosis on brain function is difficult to investigate because it usually occurs in the context of brain inflammation and abnormal changes in surrounding cells.

In epilepsy, inhibition is not working properly, and uncontrolled signaling leads to epileptic seizures. Because both disrupted inhibition and reactive astrocytosis are known to occur in other neurologic conditions, including many psychiatric disorders, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, our findings may have wide implications.

The researchers solved this problem by using a virus to selectively cause reactive astrocytosis without triggering broader inflammation and brain injury, in a mouse model. They were able to focus on how the altered astrocytes affected specific synapses in neurons in the brain’s hippocampus.

Grapes Reduces the Risk of Heart Disease and Type 2 Diabetes

New study findings were presented at the Experimental Biology convention in Anaheim, California, showing the effect of grapes in the diet reducing the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Study of the Benefits of Grapes
Researchers at the University of Michigan Health System found in the animal study they conducted that adding grapes to a regular high-fat American style diet helped to prevent risk factors for metabolic syndrome which can be a precursor to developing type 2 diabetes. If a person has two or more of, can raise the risk of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. These conditions include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high insulin levels and increased fat around the waist. The University of Michigan Health System’s study found that grapes may decrease the risk of developing these conditions.

The study consisted of adding grape powder (derived from red, green and black grapes) to food given to one group of research rats while the other group of rats ate the same diet minus the grape powder. After three months, the group that ate the grape powder had lower blood pressure, lower triglyceride levels, reduced indicators of inflammation in the heart and blood and overall better heart function than the group that had no grape powder. The researches feel that the study shows that a grape-enriched diet can have positive effects in lowering the risk factors that can lead to heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Why Grapes are Effective in Lowering Risk of Heart Disease
Grapes contain phytochemicals, a naturally occurring antioxidant, which is believed to be the main reason that grapes have health benefits. Phytochemicals help to protect heart cells from the damaging effects of metabolic syndrome. The rats that ate the grape powder showed low levels of inflammation, oxidative damage and other indicators of cardiac stress. The University of Michigan Health System plans on conducting further research this summer on the effects of grapes and other fruits containing high levels of antioxidant phytochemicals in lowering the risk of heart disease.